Novelty Overview

Comes up with Pyramid Pooling Module to add more 'context' to per pixel prediction. Adding image as a whole, different subregions as additional context helps improve pixel level scene parsing.


  • Processes final feature map from ResNet backend and adds more context to improve segmentation results
  • Adds global scene as an aggregated context (1x1xN)
  • Image as 2x2 subregions context (2x2xN)
  • Divides futher into 3x3 and 6x6
  • Going down, the levels contain more spatial relationship information, helps learn object shape better
  • Performs 1x1 Conv to reduced channels to 1 and equally weigh all levels before upsampling and concatenation


  • Adding global context and image subregions as context helps making better predictions
  • Row 1 - Reduces out of context errors ('Predicting car on a river')
  • Row 2 - Reduces part and part predictions for objects exceeding receptive field ('Part Building, Part Skyscraper')
  • Row 3 - Help predict smaller inconspicuous objects (pillow, traffic signs etc)

Auxillary Loss

  • During training larger networks, addition of an auxillary loss in the earlier layers helps, improves results

Auxillary loss on the ResNet101, added after 'res4b22' block

Ablation Studies

  • Investigating role of Pyramid pooling module, (B1234) vs only global context (B1)
  • Choice of pooling operating, Average (AVE) vs Max (MAX)
  • Role of Dimensionality Reduction (DR), 1x1 Conv to reduce channels
  • Baseline model being ResNet50 based FCN with dialted network
  • Role of Data Augmentation (DA) and Auxillary Loss (AL)

Role of Pyramid Levels, Average Pooling and 1x1 Conv
Role of Auxillary Loss and Data Augmentation

Performance Comparision

  • In 2016, achieved SOTA results on all classes in PASCAL dataset
  • Compared to other methods, acheives significant improvement on Cityscapes dataset

Comparision on Cityscapes dataset, iIoU denotes instance wise calculation, weighted according to object scale


Results on Cityscapes dataset, really close to ground truth
Results on ADE20K dataset, 'baseline' being ResNet50 based FCN with dilated network (without pyramid pooling)
Results on PASCAL VOC 2012 dataset